Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried
Chapter 77 : The Laws of Kiddush and the Shabbos Meals For Night and Day
It is a positive Biblical commandment to sanctify the Shabbos day with words, as it is said: "Remember the Shabbos day to sanctify it," implying that Shabbos should be remembered with kiddush. And you must remember it when it arrives by reciting kiddush, and also when it departs by reciting havdalah. The Sages ordained that this remembrance should be enacted over a cup of wine, when it arrives and when it departs.
You may recite kiddush and eat the Shabbos meal even though it is not yet night. However, those accustomed to pray Maariv at the proper time, during weekdays but who pray earlier on Shabbos, are forbidden to eat after one half-hour before the stars appear. If therefore it is only one-half hour until nightfall, they must wait until nightfall. And then they should first read the three chapters of Shema and after that recite kiddush. It is forbidden to eat anything, even (to drink) water before kiddush.
It is a mitzvah to recite kiddush on old wine and a mitzvah to select fine wine. And if possible you should dignify the kiddush by using red wine. Where suitable kosher wine is unavailable you may recite kiddush on raisin wine. You should say Vayechulu while standing and while looking at the candles; and afterward you should sit down and look at the (kiddush) cup and say the berachah Borei peri hagafen [Who creates the fruit of the vine] and Asher Kideshanu [Who sanctified us, etc.]. If you don't have wine you may recite kiddush over bread but not on any other beverage.
Women are also obligated to recite kiddush. Therefore they should listen well to the kiddush and answer Amein. But the should not say Baruch Hu uvaruch shemo [Blessed is He and blessed is His Name.] A minor, even if he is thirteen years old, but is not known to have two pubic hairs, cannot exempt the woman, and therefore the woman should recite kiddush herself. And if she doesn't know how to say it, she should say it word by word with the minor. Similarly if she hears the kiddush from her husband or another man, it is most proper that she should say it word by word with the one who recites kiddush. (See Dagul Meirevavah and Skilkhan Ana haTanya.) (If there are several heads of a household in one house, the correct procedure of reciting kiddush is discussed in chapter 135, paragraph 6.)
Wine that turned sour should not be used for kiddush. This law also applies to wine that has a bad odor, even though it has not turned sour. If its odor and taste is that of wine over which the berachah Borei peri hagafen is said, but it has a slightly disagreeable odor because it was kept in a filthy barrel, or it has the same odor as the barrel, it should not be used for kiddush. Similarly, wine that remained uncovered for several hours, (even though nowadays we are not strict about this) should not be used for kiddush, [as the Prophet says]: "If you offer it now to your governor, will he be pleased with you, or show you favor?" If the wine is powdery it should be strained, and if it can not be strained, it may be used for kiddush as is. But if there is a white film on it, it should not be used for kiddush, because presumably it has lost its flavor.
Kiddush may be said on boiled wine and on wine that has honey [or sugar] in it. But there are those who say that these should not be used for kiddush since they are not fit for use on the Altar. Therefore if possible an attempt should be made to obtain other wine.
The (kiddush) cup must be whole and clean. All the laws that apply to the cup used for Birkas hamazon apply to the cup used for both the day and night Kiddush and also to the cup used for havdalah. It is good to say kiddush at night over a large cup so that some of it remains for the kiddush of the day and for havdalah.
The challahs should be covered during kiddush, and even if you say kiddush over them they should be covered during kiddush in commemoration of the manna which was covered with dew both underneath and from above.
The person who recites kiddush should drink at least a full cheek of wine from the cup without interruption. It is a mitzvah for everyone to taste from the cup of blessing. Someone who does not drink wine because of a vow, or because it is harmful to him, or for similar reasons, should not make kiddush on wine and rely on those present to drink it.
The kiddush wine is a necessary part of the meal, and does not require a [separate] after-berachah, because the Birkas hamazon exempts it. But there are Poskim who hold that Birkas hamazon does not exempt it. Therefore after Birkas hamazon you should endeavor to make a berachah over a cup of wine, and drink a revi'is and say the concluding berachah which will also exempt the wine of kiddush.
On wine which you drink during the meal you need not say a berachah, for it is exempt with the berachah Borei pen hagafen of kiddush.
If you made kiddush on the cup, thinking that it contained wine and then discovered that it contains water or some other beverage, you must repeat the kiddush over wine. If there was wine on the table and you also intended to drink wine during the meal, you need not repeat the kiddush, because it is considered as though you made kiddush on that wine. And if there was no wine on the table, but there was wine in the house which you intended to drink during the meal, you need not say the berachah, Borei pen hagafen [Who created the fruit of the vine] but only the [berachah] Asher kideshanu, [Who sanctified us.] If the cup contained beer or mead, [and you live] in a place where they are accepted beverages, in any case there is no need to repeat the kiddush, and you should say the berachah Shehakol and drink it. And in places that are accustomed to reciting kiddush after washing the hands, before breaking the bread, there is also no need to repeat kiddush, rather say the berachah Hamotzi and it is considered as though you said kiddush over the bread.
By day, at the morning meal, you must also recite kiddush over a cup [of wine]. You need to say over it only the berachah Borei peri hagafen [Who creates the fruit of the vine] and this is [sufficient for] kiddush. Women are also obligated to say this kiddush. Before this kiddush it is also forbidden to taste any food or even water, just as before the kiddush at night. It is a mitzvah performed in its perfection when this kiddush is also said specifically over wine. [However], if you prefer whiskey and say kiddush over it, you also fulfill the mitzvah, but you should be careful [to see] that the cup holds a revi'is and you should drink a full cheek without interruption. If you say kiddush on wine and you also want to drink whiskey or coffee see chapter 49, paragraph 6, regarding the proper berachah.
Both at night and during the day kiddush must be recited only at the place where the meal is served, as it is said, "And you will call the Shabbos a delight." And our Rabbis of blessed memory expounded: In the place where you call forth the Shabbos, namely with the saying of kiddush, that should be the place of delight. Therefore, if you say kiddush in one house and eat in another house, even if during kiddush you had this in mind, you have not fulfilled the mitzvah of kiddush. You are also required to eat the meal immediately after kiddush. And if you did not eat immediately after kiddush, you did not fulfill the mitzvah of kiddush. By day, even if you do not want to eat the regular meal immediately, you can recite the kiddush, and eat some cake, but then you must drink a revi'is [of wine] from the cup in order to say the berachah Al hamichyah veal peri hagafen, [for the food and for the fruit of the vine.] This may also be done before Musaf, if one has a weak heart. A mohel who must say a berachah on the cup [of wine drunk] at the circumcision and has not yet recited kiddush, should first drink a cheekful from the cup and an additional revi'is.
You are permitted to taste something after the Shacharis service, before the Musaf service. Tasting is limited to a kebeitzah size piece of bread and no more, but you may eat fruit in abundance in order to strengthen yourself. However, you must recite kiddush first and drink a cheekful [of wine] and then an additional revi'is of wine, (for in a time of need this is considered kiddush at the place of the meal)." You may drink a revi'is of wine and eat a kazayis of food made of any of the five species of grain as an alternative.
Every Jew, man or woman, is obligated to eat three meals on Shabbos, one at night and two during the day. You must eat bread at each meal. And even at the third meal you should be very meticulous to eat bread. (And since you wash your hands and say a berachah on washing you must eat a kebeitzah size piece of bread.) Therefore everyone should be careful not to eat to excess at the morning meal in order to fulfill the mitzvah of [eating] three meals. If it is impossible for you to eat bread [at the third meal], you should at least eat cake or some other food made from the five species of grain over which the berachah Borei minei mezonos is said, for this [too] is considered food. And if this is also impossible, you should at least eat things that are usually eaten with bread such as meat or fish or similar things. And if this too is impossible, you should at least eat cooked fruits. The time for eating the third meal is from the time of Minchah Gedolah which is from six and one-half hours [of the day] and after.
You are obligated to break bread over two whole loaves at each meal. Both of them should be held in your hand when you make the berachah Hamotzi and then one of them is broken. It is customary to mark the loaf with the knife at the place you want to cut. The reason is because on weekdays you must cut a little around the bread before saying the berachah Hamotzi as it is written in chapter 41, paragraph 3. On Shabbos, however, this cannot be done, because the loaves must be whole when the berachah is said. Therefore you should at least mark the place so that you know the exact spot to cut, without pausing too long before deciding where to cut. You should place the loaves in such a way that the one you want to cut is in front of you, so that you will not need to pass over the mitzvah. And even if you eat many meals, you must have two whole loaves at each meal. Similarly, when you say kiddush in the morning before your regular meal, and you have cake, you should also have two whole cakes.
If all those seated at the table are not provided with two whole loaves, but only one of them [has two loaves], he should break [his two loaves] [having in mind to] exempt the others. Similarly, regarding the berachah Hamotzi, they are exempt with his berachah. Before saying the berachah over the loaves, you should say: "With the permission of my teachers and masters." And after you eat from the bread of the motzi, you should give everyone a piece of bread and they too should eat.
If you did not read the weekly portion of the Torah on Frey Shabbos, you should not eat the Shabbos morning meal until you read it. And if you did not read it before eating, you should at least read it before Minchah. And post factum, you may read it until Tuesday night.
It is forbidden to fast on Shabbos for the sake of fasting, even for a short time; and even if not intended as a fast, it is forbidden in any case to fast until noon.
It is forbidden to grieve, heaven forbid, over any misfortune, may the Merciful One save us, but you should seek mercy from the Merciful One.
It is a mitzvah to partake generously of fruits and delicacies and to enjoy fragrances in order to complete the total of one hundred berachos. It is a mitzvah to delight in everything that gives you delight, as it is said: 'And you shall call the Shabbos a delight.'
After the morning meal, if you are accustomed to sleep you may do so, but do not say, "I will sleep [now] because I have to do work or start on a journey at night."
After sleeping you should set a time for learning Torah. In the portion of the Torah relating to Shabbos it is said: 'And Moshe assembled.' And our Rabbis of blessed memory expounded: Why does it say in this portion "and he assembled," whereas it is not said thus elsewhere in the entire Torah? The Holy One, blessed is He said to Moshe, Go down, and make for Me large assemblies on Shabbos so that future generations will learn [from you] to gather assemblies every Shabbos to learn Torah in public. They said further, Shabbos and Yom Tov were given to Israel only for the study of Torah, because many people are burdened during the week with their daily tasks, and they have no time to engage in the study of Torah regularly. However on Shabbos and Yom Tov when they are free from their work they can learn Torah properly. Therefore workers and laymen who are not engaged in Torah study during the week, are more obligated to engage in the study of Torah on the holy Shabbos, each man according to his understanding and ability.