Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried
Chapter 80 : Some of the Melachos (Work) that are Prohibited on Shabbos
The principal melachos which we are forbidden to do on Shabbos are already known to most of the Jewish people. Thus, we will list only those things which are not generally known [to be forbidden] and are done in our daily activities.
It is forbidden to use the light of an oil lamp for anything that requires concentration. This is a rabbinic prohibition, lest you forget and tilt the lamp to draw the oil closer to the wick, thereby violating [the deoraisa prohibition of] lighting a fire. Two people may read the same subject from the same book together, for if one attempts to tilt the lamp, the other one will remind him. [Studying by the light of] our present day candles in which the wax or tallow adhere to the wicks, is permitted, but you must make some sort of mark in order to remember not to snip off the charred end of the wick which, according to the opinion of the Rambam, is a deoraisa prohibition. Even through a non-Jew, it is forbidden to snip off the tip of the wick.
It is forbidden to open a door or window directly opposite and close to a burning candle lest the flame be extinguished. But it is permitted to close a door or window [even in such circumstances]. The door of an oven in which a fire is burning must not be opened or closed, for by doing so, the fire is either increased or extinguished.
It is forbidden to pour hot gravy on pieces of bread or matzos, rather you should first pour the gravy into a dish, and let it cool until it is fit to eat. After that you may put in the bread or matzos. However, as long as the gravy is hot, even if it is in the dish [which is a k'li sheini], it is forbidden to put in bread or matzos. You should also not put salt or spices into the [hot] gravy, even if it is in a dish [k'li sheini] and, certainly, not into the pot [k'li rishon] as long as it is hot. But (you) should wait until it cools off, until it is fit to eat. If the salt was processed through boiling, some are lenient [and permit it], but he who adheres to the stricter view, will be blessed. Likewise, you should not pour hot coffee or tea into a cup that you wish to drink from if it contains sugar; rather, you should first pour in the coffee or tea and then put in the sugar. When there is a necessity, you may be lenient.
It is forbidden to place fruit or water on a hot stove because the water might boil and the fruit might bake. Even if your intention is only to warm them a little, nevertheless, if on this place it is possible that they will boil or bake, it is forbidden to warm them there. Likewise, pudding (kugel) containing fat should not be placed near a fire or on an oven in a place where it may boil, even if you intend only to warm it. But in a place where it cannot be cooked but only warmed somewhat, you are permitted to place it, even if the fat is congealed or the water is frozen. But in an oven in which food is kept warm, it is forbidden to put anything cold for the purpose of warming, even if it cannot boil there. If it is needed for one who is slightly ill, a halachic authority should be consulted. There are some who are accustomed to replace foods into the oven on Shabbos where they had been kept warm, since they are still warm. But if they cooled off completely, it is forbidden to do so. A spiritually sensitive person should be stringent in all such cases.
On Shabbos it is forbidden to warm food, by wrapping it in anything [that insulates], (even if it does not increase its warmth). Therefore, if you remove a pot containing food that was cooked or warmed in it, it is forbidden to wrap it or cover it with pillows or cushions, etc. to preserve its warmth.
Food that cannot be eaten at all without being rinsed is forbidden to be rinsed on Shabbos, even with cold water. Salted fish [herring] may be soaked in cold water for even before soaking, it is edible.
It is forbidden to put vinegar into mustard, horseradish, and other relishes on Shabbos, in which no vinegar was put while it was still day (before Shabbos). It is permitted if you do it in an irregular manner; that is, you must first put the vinegar into a dish, and afterwards put in the mustard or horseradish. You should not make a thick mixture, but you must pour enough vinegar into it so that the mixture is thin. You may not mix it with a spoon or anything similar, but with your finger, or you may shake the vessel until the contents are well mixed.
Fruit found lying under a tree [on Shabbos], must not even be moved, for it may have fallen off that very day. Similarly, all fruits of a non-Jew, if there is a possibility that they were picked that day, must not even be moved.
It is forbidden to remove honey from a beehive. It is also forbidden to crush honeycombs, even if they were removed from the hive before Shabbos. If the honeycomb was not crushed before Shabbos, the honey that flows from it on Shabbos is forbidden. But honey flowing from the hive itself is permitted (to be eaten on Shabbos).
Fruit that was scattered in one place in the house or yard, may be gathered together. But if they are scattered all about, when it is a bother to gather them, it is forbidden to gather them into a basket, but you may pick them up and eat them [one by one].
Concerning legumes [peas] in their pods (which are called sharvitin), when their pods are fresh and edible, you may open them and remove [the peas] from the pod, (for this is considered separating food from food) [which is permitted]. But if the pods have become dry and are no longer edible, it is forbidden to remove the peas from them. Similarly, you must be careful not to remove nut (kernels) from their (soft) green (outer) shell or sesame seeds from their shells.
It is forbidden to squeeze fruit for their juice. Therefore, it is forbidden to squeeze lemons into water to make lemonade. And even to suck the juice into your mouth is forbidden according to some poskim. You should be careful at least when eating grapes, not to suck out the juice and discard the skins. If you do not need the juice, it is permitted to squeeze it out. Therefore, you may squeeze out lettuce or cucumbers [pickles], since the water goes to waste.
A woman may not squeeze milk from her breasts into a cup or pot and feed her child with it, but she may squeeze out a little milk to facilitate the baby's nursing. It is forbidden to sprinkle some of her milk on something for the sake of a remedy where there is no danger involved and no intense pain.
It is permitted to place congealed fat upon hot food even though it melts. You may not crush snow or hail by hand, breaking them into pieces so that their water oozes out; but you may put [ice] into a cup of wine or water to chill it, letting the ice melt of itself. In the winter, you should be careful not to wash your hands with water containing snow or hailstones. If you did, you should be careful not to squeeze them with your hands, in order not to crush them. It is permissible to break ice in order to take water from underneath. Urinating in snow should be avoided if possible. Likewise, you should be careful not to urinate on mud or soft dirt.
When food is mixed with pesoles, you may separate [select] the food from the pesoles, but not the pesoles from the food. And even separating food from pesoles is forbidden when using a utensil. It is permitted only by hand, and only for the purpose of eating it immediately. Even foods which you select to eat now, from food which will be left for later use, care must be taken to select only what is to be eaten now, and not to select that which will be left over, because the part to be eaten now is considered food and the part to be left over is considered pesoles. Even peeling garlic or onions and putting them away is prohibited, because of boreir (selecting). You are permitted to peel only what you need for eating now. The outermost peel of the garlic, that surrounds the whole cluster must not be removed even to eat the garlic now, because it is considered mefareik, a toldah [offshoot melachah] of dosh (threshing).
Even non-edible items are included in the prohibition of boreir (selection), such as utensils etc.; whatever you need for immediate use is considered food and the rest is considered waste.
It is forbidden to strain any liquid because it involves many halachic details. However, it is permitted to drink through a cloth, for the law of boreir applies only to improvements made prior to eating or drinking, but in this case (of drinking through a cloth), you are merely preventing the pesoles from entering your mouth. Nevertheless, drinking water through a cloth is prohibited by some poskim because it constitutes washing (the cloth). But you can be lenient in an urgent situation where there is no pure water to drink. However, you should not drink through your shirt sleeve for fear that you will wring out [the sleeve].
A coffee (beverage) which has coffee grounds on the bottom, which is pesoles, or any other beverage that has dregs on the bottom, or other pesoles, when you pour from it, care must be taken not to pour off all the clear liquid, but you must leave a little with the pesoles. In the case of milk that has curdled, it is forbidden to remove the top which is called butterfat, unless it is needed for the immediate meal, and even in this case, you must be careful not to remove all of it, rather leave some of it on the milk which is on the bottom.
If a fly or other insect fell into food or beverage, it is forbidden to remove just the fly itself; but you must, remove some of the food or beverage with it and discard it with the fly.
If you must crush pepper or salt, and similar items, to put into food, you may crush (them) with the handle of a knife on the table, or with similar methods. But not with a mortar and pestle, or with a hand-mill.
It is forbidden to cut up onions and other vegetables, except immediately before a meal and even then, they should not be cut very fine.
It is forbidden to salt anything which will become soft or less pungent because of the salt. This is similar to (the melachah of) me'abeid [tanning]. Therefore, it is forbidden to salt raw cucumbers. It is also forbidden to salt radishes or onions, even if they are needed for that meal, but you may dip each piece in salt and eat them. Eggs, cooked meat, and other foods that are not affected by salt, except that it gives them a salty flavor, may be salted to be eaten at that meal. It is forbidden to salt them for another meal.
You may not salt a large quantity of cooked beans and legumes together, because salting helps to soften them; and even if you intend to eat them immediately, it is forbidden.
Cucumber salad, and other relishes made from onions, may be salted immediately before the meal, since the oil and vinegar which are added immediately weaken the strength of the salt. But it is forbidden to salt them and leave them stand for a while.
The prohibition of "Building" applies also to foods, such as making hard cheese or arranging fruits in an orderly fashion. Therefore, when cutting onions for eggs or for creamed herring, you should be careful not to shape them and decorate them, rather put them on the plate as they are.
When washing dishes in boiling water, you should not pour the water on the dishes, rather, pour the water into another vessel and then put the dishes into the vessel. Dishes must not be washed with a cloth because of the prohibition of squeezing, but you may wash them with a cloth used especially for this purpose, since you are not concerned to wring it out, even on weekdays. Glass dishes must not be washed with oats or similar detergents. It is forbidden to wash dishes on Shabbos other than those [actually] needed for Shabbos.
Whatever is forbidden to be done on Shabbos by a Jew, is also forbidden to be done for him through a non-Jew. Nevertheless, in the winter, since it is permitted to light the oven in order to heat the house through a non-Jew, the custom is that the non-Jew [is permitted] to place the cold food on the oven before he lights it, and then light it. Since lighting the oven is not intended for heating the food, but rather for heating the house some (poskim) permit this; but only if he (the non-Jew) put on the food before lighting the oven and not after. Certainly if lighting (the oven) is not intended for the sake of heating the house, but for the food, it is forbidden in any manner. Some (poskim) forbid this even if the intent is to heat the house. Even though the custom is to rely on the poskim who permit it, nevertheless, a scrupulous person should be stringent when it is not very urgent. And certainly this is the case with iron ovens which are made especially for cooking purposes. Although people light them on Shabbos to heat their homes, and the non-Jew puts on the food before lighting it, nevertheless, a God-fearing Jew should abstain from this practice.
Anyone who spills liquid on soil where something grows is guilty of violating the law against sowing, for the liquid causes the soil to sprout. Therefore, you should be mindful not to eat (a meal) in a garden; because it is difficult to prevent the spilling of some liquid on the soil, and, besides, it is forbidden to carry in a garden.
A sponge that has no handle must not be used for wiping [a table].
It is forbidden to spit in a place where the wind will scatter the saliva.
A girl is forbidden to braid her hair on Shabbos and she must not undo her braids, but she may fix her hair with her hands. Regarding combs made from hogs' hair, — If the bristles are very hard, so that it is impossible not to tear out hairs, it is forbidden to comb with it, but if it is not so hard, she is permitted to set her hair with it. And it is certainly [permitted] if it is set aside for that purpose.
A garment or anything similar that is soiled, may be wiped with a rag or something similar, but water may not be spilled on it because spilling water on it is equivalent to washing. Therefore, if a child urinates on a garment, it is forbidden to pour water on it. (But if he urinates on the ground or on a wooden vessel or hide, it is permitted to pour water on it.) When you wash your hands and want to dry them with a towel, you should rub your hands together well, to remove the water, so that only a little water remains on them; (for the little water that you dry is considered soiling and is not considered washing). When a colored towel is used there is no cause for concern in any case, (since such a towel is not likely to be washed in this manner).
If a barrel contains water or other liquids, it is forbidden to cover it with a cloth which is not set aside to cover it, lest it be wrung out. But with a cloth set aside for this purpose, it is permitted to cover it, for since it is set aside for that purpose, we have no reason to fear that it will be wrung.
If water spilled on the table or any similar surface, it is forbidden to wipe it with a garment which you value, for since it absorbs much water you might wring it out. Similarly, you may not use a towel to dry cups or other vessels having a narrow opening, because the liquid will be squeezed out of the towel.
If you were walking in the rain and your clothing got wet, you are permitted to go home, but when you remove [your clothes], it is forbidden to spread them out to dry. Even if they were only moist from perspiration, it is forbidden to spread them out and certainly it is forbidden to spread them out (to dry) near a fire. Even if you are wearing them, it is forbidden to stand near the fire where it is very hot. It is likewise forbidden to shake off the water from the garment. A garment of which you take special care lest it get wet, is forbidden to be handled even after taking it off for fear you might squeeze out the water.
If you are walking and reach a stream, you may jump over it even if it is [a bit] wide. It is better to jump over it than to bypass it, because (bypassing) increases the [effort of the] journey. It is forbidden to pass through the stream, lest you wring your clothes after crossing. It is forbidden to walk on Shabbos in any place where you might slip and fall into water lest your clothes get soaked and you will wring them out.
If your are going to do a mitzvah, such as greeting your father or your rebbe or someone greater in Torah wisdom than you, you may cross the river, provided you do so in an unusual manner. For example, do not remove your hands from underneath your overcoat, so that you will remember not to wring [the clothes]. It is forbidden to cross (a stream) wearing sandals, for since you cannot secure them and fasten them well, they may fall off and you will carry them. But you may (cross the stream) in your shoes. Once you go for the purpose of doing a mitzvah you may also return [the same way]. If you are going to guard your fruit, (watching over your property is also somewhat of a mitzvah), you may (cross the stream) on the way there but not when you return.
Wet mud on a garment may be scraped off with a fingernail or a knife, but if it is dry, it is forbidden to scrape it, for that would be similar to "Grinding."
It is forbidden to shake dust or snow from a black garment, but it is permitted to remove a feather from it. Some (poskim) rule that this too is forbidden.
Mud that is on your foot or your shoe may be removed with something which is permitted to be handled [on Shabbos], or they may be wiped on a beam. They may not be wiped on a wall or on the ground. If there is an urgent need, as when there is excrement on your foot, or on your shoe, and there is nothing available which may be handled on Shabbos, they may be wiped on a wall. If there is no wall they may be wiped on the ground. And if water is available, the shoe may be washed even in water if it is made of leather. (For in the case of leather, mere splashing of [water] is not considered washing unless the two ends are rubbed together in the manner of launderers.) But it is forbidden to use a knife to scrape off mud or excrement from a leather shoe. If the iron (post) in front of the house, that is made for cleaning shoes, is sharp, it is forbidden to scrape shoes with it; if it is not sharp it is permitted.
If your hands become soiled with mud you should not wipe them on a hand towel, (lest you forget and rinse it).
It is forbidden to dye anything even with a dye that is not permanent. Therefore a woman is forbidden to color her face. Care must be taken when your hands are colored by the fruits you have eaten, not to touch your garment, because it will become dyed. Likewise, blood from your nose or blood from a wound should not be wiped on a kerchief.
You may not put saffron into your (cooked) food because it colors [dyes] it. (And so it is written in the sefer Chayei Adam [24: 5].)
It is forbidden to braid or weave even two threads, or two loose hairs [on Shabbos].
Usually when we want to tie something with two strings or ropes, or when we wind around a string or rope, and tie the two ends together like a belt, we tie a double knot because a single knot will not hold. It is forbidden to tie a double knot on Shabbos, even on something that is usually untied the same day. [Therefore] you must be careful when wrapping a scarf around the neck, not to make a double knot. Similarly on Friday [erev Shabbos] you should not make a double knot, for if you do, it is forbidden to untie it on Shabbos, as discussed below. Similarly, to make even one knot at one end of a string or rope, or to hold the two ends together, and make one knot on both of them is forbidden, since with this method even a single knot holds strongly. It is permitted to take the two ends together, tie them with a single knot and a loop on top, if it is something that is usually untied the same day. If not, it is forbidden, even if you intend to untie it the same day. But making two loops, one on top of the other, is permitted, [and it is permitted to make] even many loops even if it is intended that they remain for many days.
A knot which you are forbidden to tie is also forbidden to be untied. If it causes discomfort it may be untied by a non-Jew.
It is the custom of tailors before sewing a garment to connect the pieces with long basting stitches, and afterward remove the threads from these stitches. It is forbidden to remove them on Shabbos.
Some garments are made so that a string or strap may be inserted in them such as pants, shoes, or a robe. If it is a new garment it is forbidden to insert them, because it is like perfecting a vessel. If it is old, and the hole is not narrow, so that there is no bother inserting [the string], it is permitted. If it is bothersome, it is forbidden.
When a stitch becomes loose and the parts of the garment become a bit separated, if the thread is pulled, the loose parts will tighten and hold together. It is forbidden to do this on Shabbos because this is considered sewing.
If sheets of paper were stuck together unintentionally, as the pages of a book sometimes stick together from the paint [or glue] used by the bookbinder, or if some pages were stuck together by wax, it is permitted to open them.
If the openings of vessels were covered with a cloth and tied with a string, it is permitted to tear them open on Shabbos, for this is considered spoiling, and it is permissible when needed for Shabbos.
It is forbidden to catch any living creature on Shabbos. It is forbidden even to catch a flea [on Shabbos]. But if it is on your body and it is biting you, since it causes you physical discomfort, it may be removed and thrown away. It is forbidden to kill it because it is forbidden to kill any living creature [on Shabbos]. [It is, however, permitted to kill] lice since they are created only by perspiration. Nevertheless, those found in clothing must not be killed, rather they should be removed and thrown away. Only lice found in the head may be killed.
You must take care when closing a box or vessel in which there are flies, to let them fly out first, because when you close it they will be trapped there. However, it is not necessary to examine the box to see that none are left, it is sufficient to chase away those you see.
It is forbidden to draw blood [on Shabbos]; it is forbidden even to suck blood from the gums. It is also forbidden to dress a wound with a dressing that draws out blood and pus. It is certainly forbidden to squeeze a wound to draw out blood or pus.
If tzitzin, shreds of skin, become separated from the skin around the fingernail, it is forbidden to remove them either by means of an instrument or by hand, or with the teeth. A nail, most of which has been separated and is almost torn off, and causes discomfort, may be removed by hand, but not with an instrument. If most of it was not separated, it is forbidden to remove it even by hand.
It is forbidden to pour other liquids into vinegar so that they too become vinegar.
Meat that was not salted (Kashered) and its third day occurs on Shabbos and if it is not rinsed [now] it will be forbidden, may be rinsed by a non-Jew, but it is forbidden for a Jew to do so.
It is forbidden to smear plaster or wax or tar. Therefore, it is forbidden to put wax or congealed oil into a hole to close it, or to stick it onto something for a marker. But it is permitted to smear food, like butter on bread or similar things.
It is forbidden to break or cut anything that is not food; but it is permitted to cut food, even animal food. Therefore you may cut straw to pick your teeth. Fragrant woods may be crushed and broken in order to smell them even if they are as hard as wood. But you may not break them to pick your teeth.
A tree, be it green or dried up, may not be used for any purpose, even if you do not shake it. (Because shaking the tree is in itself a violation of muktzeh.) You may not climb on it nor hang on it. It is forbidden to place any article on it or remove anything from it, or to tie an animal to it, or to make any other use of it. And even the sides of the tree are forbidden to be used. Therefore, if a basket is hanging on it, it is forbidden to take anything from the basket or to place anything into it, for the basket is (considered) the side of the tree. But if a spike is driven into a tree and a basket is suspended from it, it is permissible to take things from it or to put (things) into it, because the basket is then considered the side of the side [of the tree]. It is forbidden to remove the basket from it or to hang the basket on the spike, because you would be making use of the spike which is the side of the tree.
If a vessel is used for planting herbs or roses for their beauty or fragrance; it is forbidden to pluck them from the vessel just as it is forbidden to pluck them from a tree. Care must be taken [that such a vessel] not be moved from the ground to set it in another place, because when it stands on the ground it is nourished from the aroma of the soil, therefore removing it from there is like plucking [something from the ground]. Similarly, if it is standing in another place, it is forbidden to remove it and place it on the ground, because doing this is equivalent to planting. You must be diligent in all these matters, whether the vessel is of wood or of clay, and whether there is an opening on the bottom or not.
It is forbidden to write or draw any form, even with your finger, with liquid [spilled] on the tabletop, or with the condensation on a glass window, or with anything else, even if it is not of a permanent nature. Even to make a mark with your fingernail upon an object for a sign is forbidden. If wax or something similar is found on a book, even if it is only on one letter, it is forbidden to remove it.
Just as it is forbidden to write, so is it forbidden to erase any writing. However, cakes upon which letters or figures were made, are permitted to be broken and eaten on Shabbos but if they were made as a charm for children, you should be machmir (stringent).
Books upon which the edges of the pages have written words, according to some (poskim), are forbidden to be opened or closed on Shabbos, but other (poskim) permit it, and such is the custom. However, since some poskim forbid it it is best not to write on the edges of pages.
You are permitted to say to a friend, "Fill up this vessel for me," even though it is specifically used for measuring, and even if it belongs to the seller, so long as [you] the customer, takes it home. And certainly if the customer, brings his own vessel and says, "Fill up this vessel for me," it is surely permitted. However, it is forbidden to measure in a measuring vessel that belongs to the seller, and empty it into the customer's vessel. It is permissible to say to your friend, "Give me fifty nuts" etc. provided you do not mention any measure or money, and you also make no calculation saying, "I owe you for fifty nuts, give me another fifty nuts and I will owe you for a hundred." Certainly you should not speak in terms of sale, even if you do not set the price, and even if it is for Shabbos needs. It is forbidden to make purchases on Shabbos, [even] through a non-Jew and the same law applies to renting.
You are permitted to say to a friend, "Fill up this vessel for me or fill it up until this mark and tomorrow we will measure it or weigh it."
Just as it is forbidden to erect even a temporary building on Shabbos, so too is it forbidden to add even a temporary addition to a permanent structure. There is a halachic question regarding a door made for a doorway which is not used frequently for entrance and exit except on rare occasions. A door which does not swing on pivots or on hinges but rather was attached and suspended there, may be used to close [the opening], so long as there is a hinge on the door, or even if there is no hinge at present, but it had one that was broken and the place where it was is still discernible. Even if the door is such that when it is opened, it drags on the ground and in order to close it it must be raised and placed on the threshold, it is nevertheless permissible. (The reason is) since it is attached and suspended and there is also a mark of a hinge, it is obvious that it is a door used for closing and opening, and it does not appear as construction. Certainly this is true if it still has a hinge, provided that you do not slip the hinge into place, for this would be considered (the melachah of) building.
But if there is no mark of a hinge, it is forbidden to close an opening with it on Shabbos. For since it is made to open only on rare occasions, and it is not obvious that it is used as a door, closing it is equivalent to building. But if it is attached and suspended well so that when it is opened it does not drag on the ground, even if it is suspended above the ground only a hairbreadth, it is clearly a door and it is permissible to close the opening with it.
If it is not attached and suspended at all, and upon opening it, it is removed entirely, it is absolutely forbidden to use it to close an opening not made for regular entrance and exit. But if it is an opening which is made for regular entrance and exit, it is permitted to close the doorway with it, even if there is no mark of a hinge on it.
A door made of one (wooden) plank, may not be used to close a doorway that is not used for regular entrance and exit, even if it has a hinge, but it does not swing on its hinge, for since it is made of only one plank and it does not swing on its hinge, it appears like building and closing up an open space. But if an opening is made for regular entrance and exit, you may be lenient and close the doorway with it provided there is a door for then it is obvious that it is a doorway.
A window shutter such as a plank or anything else with which a window is shut, may be used to shut the window even if it is not attached there, provided that it has already been used once to shut the window before Shabbos, or you had in mind to shut the window with it before Shabbos. However, if it was never used to shut the window, and you did not have in mind to do so, it is forbidden to shut a window with it on Shabbos, if it is a thing which is customarily left there for a long time. But something which is customarily left there only for a short time, such as a garment or the like, is permitted to be used for shutting under all circumstances.
Doors and windows even when they hang on iron hinges, and are easily removed and reset, nevertheless, it is forbidden to remove them or to hang them on Shabbos, for one who hangs them is [in violation of] building and the one who removes them is [in violation of] demolition.
It is forbidden to sweep the house even if the floor is made of stone or wood. But when a non-Jew does it, it is permitted. If you do it in an entirely unusual manner, such as using the feathers of a goose wing, or something similar, it is permitted even for a Jew.
You may not rub saliva on the ground with your foot, but you may step on it without rubbing it.
It is forbidden to relieve yourself in a plowed field on Shabbos. (If it is someone else's field, it is forbidden to enter it [for such a purpose] even on weekdays, as stated in Chapter 183:5)
It is forbidden to make even a temporary partition, on Shabbos or Yom Tov if it is for the purpose of permitting something. Therefore it is forbidden to make a partition with a curtain or anything similar to block out the light of a candle in order to permit marital relations, or in front of seforim in order to have marital relations or (to permit) moving the bowels; for since the partition legalizes [these activities] it creates a separate domain and it is equivalent to making a tent. However, it is permitted to cover the seforim with two coverings, one on top of the other for this does not constitute making a tent. If the curtain that hangs in front of the bed was spread out [at least] one tefach before Shabbos, whether from the side or from the top, it is permitted to spread all of it on Shabbos, because then it is only an addition to a temporary tent. But the ruffled part of the curtain which always hangs at one end [of the bed] is not included in the tefach, because it is not intended to serve as a tent. Similarly, a partition called a "Spanish wall" is forbidden to be opened unless it was slightly opened from erev Shabbos. But the part that is always folded, even if that part of the wall is more than a tefach, cannot be considered. But a temporary partition that is not made to permit (anything) but rather to serve as a shield from the sun or to prevent wind from blowing out the candle, etc., is permitted.
A tent, even if it is made only to shield from the sun or from the rain; and even if it is only a temporary tent, if it is one tefach by one tefach and one tefach high it is forbidden to be made on Shabbos. Therefore, it is forbidden to spread a sheet over a baby's crib that has wooden hoops on the top upon which a sheet is spread, unless at least a tefach was spread before Shabbos, [in which case] the remainder is only an addition to a temporary tent, which is permitted. If the hoops were close to each other, and were less than three tefachim apart, they are in themselves considered a tent, (for it is a law given [orally] to Moses on Mount Sinai that any space less than three tefachim is considered lavud, which means connected and closed) and it is permissible to spread a sheet over them.
It is forbidden to remove the cover of a box [trunk] which is not attached with hinges, because it is equivalent to demolishing a tent. And likewise it is forbidden to cover the box with it because it is like making a tent. When placing a board on an [open] barrel to serve as a table, you must place the barrel with its open side on the bottom, because if you place the board on the open side, you will be making a tent.
If a chimney has its opening on the side, so that closing it is like adding to a partition, it is permissible to close it. But if the opening is on top of the chimney, it is forbidden to close it on Shabbos and Yom Tov because it is like making a tent. If an iron door is installed there that swings on hinges, it is permissible to close it, for since it is installed there it is like (any) door that swings on hinges.
If a garment was spread over the opening of a barrel and the barrel is not entirely full, but there is an empty space of tefach between the beverage and the cover, you should not cover it completely because it is like (making) a tent, but rather leave a little of the opening uncovered.
Any partition or tent which you are forbidden to make [on Shabbos], once it is made, you are forbidden to remove it, for it is like demolishing a tent.
It is forbidden to carry a covering that is made to protect from the sun or rain, which is called an umbrella, [because when you open it] it is considered making a tent.
When vessels made of different sections inserted into one another became separated, if they were usually joined loosely, it is permissible to put them back, but if they were usually joined tightly, it is forbidden to put them back even loosely. Similarly if they were joined by means of screws, since they are usually joined tightly, if they became separated, it is forbidden to join them even loosely. However, it is permissible to remove pot covers and to put them on, since they are not made to remain there, but rather to be opened and closed constantly.
When a press is made of two boards one on top of the other, between which clothes are pressed, if it is a household press it is permissible to open it to take out clothes needed for Shabbos and Yom Tov. But you may not press clothing in it, for you would be doing it for weekday needs. If it is a launderer's press or that of another craftsman, it is forbidden to be opened, for since it is joined together strongly, opening it is like demolition. Even if the press was opened before Shabbos it is forbidden to take clothing from there on Shabbos or Yom Tov. This is a gezeirah (rabbinic decree) lest you open it on Shabbos.
If the leg of a stool came out, it is forbidden to put it back, and it is also forbidden to lean the stool on another stool unless you previously sat on it in this manner. However, it is permissible to place a board on stools, or on pieces of wood that you prepared erev Shabbos for that (purpose).
It is forbidden to wind even an ongoing clock on Shabbos and Yom Tov to prevent it from stopping. On the second day of Yom Tov you may be lenient, so long as it is still going. It may be wound [only] for the need of Yom Tov but not for the next day. For a sick person it is permitted in any case, if a non-Jew cannot easily be found to do it.
It is forbidden to make a musical sound with an instrument on Shabbos, or with the limbs of your body, (except the mouth). It is even forbidden to snap your fingers, or tap them on a board to make a sound, or to rattle a nut, or to ring a bell to silence a crying child. It is forbidden to clap or to dance. [However] in the honor of the Torah it is permissible to clap and dance. Also if someone does it to silence a crying child, you should not protest for there are (poskim) who permit it.
It is permitted to make non-musical sounds. Therefore it is permissible to knock on a door so that it will be opened for you, and similar things [are also permitted]. Some authorities hold that it is nevertheless forbidden to make noise with a special instrument such as knocking on a door with the knocker attached to it or to ring the bell set up for that purpose. Similarly, those clocks that are made to strike the hours by means of pressing them, or by pulling a special chain, may not be operated as such on Shabbos or Yom Tov.
If you are guarding fruits or grain against animals and birds, you may not clap your hands, nor slap your hands on your thighs, nor stamp your feet to chase them away as you would do on weekdays.
It is not permitted to play with nuts or the like on the ground, even if covered by a floor. You should nevertheless not protest against women and children (who do it), for they will certainly not listen, and it is better that they err unintentionally rather than intentionally.
In reference to folding clothing there are many halachic intricacies and you should (therefore) not fold any garment.
If a garment is caught on fire it is permissible to spill any kind of beverage on the spot which is not yet burning, so that when the fire reaches the wet part it will be extinguished, but it is forbidden to spill water on the garment.
You may not make your bed on Shabbos for use after Shabbos. Even if there is still time left in the day during which you can sleep while it is still Shabbos, nevertheless, since it is not your intention to sleep on it until after Shabbos, you are preparing something on Shabbos for weekdays, and this is forbidden.